Interactive Workstations for 3D Visualization Based on Voxel CPU Architecture

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Interactive Workstations for 3D Visualization Based on Voxel CPU Architecture

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A Momentary Historic earlier of the Voxel Processor Prototype, Voxelscope,
and VoxelQ with Articles/Brochures/Photographs/Extra



School of Pennsylvania, Dynamic Digital Shows, Inc.,
Picker International

Model 1.16 (20-Jan-2020)

Copyright &copy 1994-2019



Samuel M. Goldwasser



— All Rights Reserved —

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Desk of Contents



  • Encourage to Steady-Time 3D Visualization Table of Contents.

    Introduction

    These are transient summaries and some anecdotes from my earlier life
    pushing bits spherical in excessive effectivity digital {hardware} for valid-time
    three-d (3D) visualization of scientific datasets from sources worship
    Computed Tomography (CT or CAT)
    and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners.
    The {hardware} is all primarily based totally on the “Voxel Processor Construction” (VPA)
    for the advise rendering of 3D datasets saved
    as voxels or “quantity formulation” – the 3D analog of
    the pixels in a 2-D picture. Proper right here is in distinction to most totally different recommendations the save
    a mannequin primarily based totally on polygons or totally different an an identical elevated stage formulation may presumably effectively presumably possess to be
    produced from the voxels earlier than any manipulation or present is seemingly.

    I felt it crucial to compose this web page in allege that the journey would now not
    be misplaced with out finish as searches safe nearly nothing on-line.
    This Internet convey materials is an effort to on the least partly clear up that.
    Sadly, this all happened earlier than cell phone cameras and
    of us felt obligated to grasp photographs or motion pictures
    of even essentially the most mundane, so no individual opinion to doc any of this
    earlier what was wished for manuals and Advertising.

    My apologies for errors and omissions Ed Walsh has helped fairly quite a bit with this
    however I am clear that now not all of the items is appropriate. My reminiscence is very fuzzy
    after some 35 years on most of the particulars so some points may presumably effectively presumably be conflated
    between variations of the machines. Concurrently you’re feeling there may very well be one thing that
    may presumably effectively presumably possess to be built-in (as extended as a result of it’s now doubtlessly not very controversial) I might be tickled
    to own in ideas it. Contributions, suggestions, critiques, and corrections are
    welcome. Concurrently prospects are you may presumably effectively presumably possess bought an passion in contacting someone talked about right here,
    or others acknowledged to own been with these endeavors, I may presumably effectively presumably presumably
    hook you up. For any of this, please contact me by the hyperlink above.

    Archival discipline subject mature with permission of the copyright proprietor the save seemingly.

    YouTube Movies are moreover available of the VPP, VS1, VS2, and VQ, reworked from
    VHS (tape!) to .wmv format. Concurrently you rep VHS, the usual is disagreeable
    in distinction even to a DVD (by no means ideas HD 4K). The VCR and tapes are over 25 years
    frail and one or each look like degrading after a number of playings. And the VPP VHS
    is a dub of a Sony Umatic tape, and so they had been all transferred by
    reshooting from a flat cowl TV ensuing in some sampling artifacts.
    So no complaints, please. πŸ™‚ Nonetheless
    if someone has obtain entry to to a authentic enhancing facility, it
    may presumably effectively presumably be seemingly to obtain higher a petite of higher high quality from these frail tapes
    nevertheless it little doubt may presumably effectively presumably truthful now not be spectacular. There may very well be moreover on the least one totally different video on
    the finer sides of utilizing Voxelscope II (inside the occasion prospects are you may presumably effectively presumably possess bought one).
    Quiz if .

    The dates are wild guesses; the circumstances are in minutes:

    1. UPenn GRASP Lab Voxel
      Processor Prototype Demonstration
      Proper right here is the save the valid-time flow into was
      (~1983, 2: 30).
    2. Dynamic Digital
      Displays, Inc. Voxelscope I
      Different purposes, extended, foolish, no
      audio (~1988, 12: 15).
    3. Dynamic Digital
      Displays, Inc. Voxelscope II
      Advertising video with minimal fluff (~1990,
      8: 38).
    4. Picker Global
      VoxelQ
      Advertising video, slick, polished (~1995. 8: 15).

    (These hyperlinks are moreover built-in inside their respective sections.)

    Due to Ed Walsh for his many corrections and choices, required to
    dawdle my extended ignored Voxel-connected thoughts cells (or at people who
    haven’t been recycled). πŸ˜‰

    I actually possess now not built-in specific names for someone from legitimate Administration (each
    employed by DDD or the VCs, or related with Picker) since we now not possess
    contact with them to obtain their enter. So that’s mainly an
    engineering/technology-centric exposition. And my apologies for
    now not together with a number of the others who had been now not straight .

    Stage to: Clicking on most of the photographs (for a elevated decision mannequin)
    and any of the hyperlinks opens in a single unique window or tab (goal
    title: 3D) counting in your browser’s settings.



  • Encourage to Steady-Time 3D Visualization Table of Contents.

    School of Pennsylvania

    I used to be the professor type at UPenn with a joint appointment in EE and CS
    and with the founding of the GRASP (Regular Robotics
    and Energetic Sensory Processing) Lab on the Moore School of Electrical
    Engineering inside the early 1980s together with Dr. Ruzena Bajcsy. (The GRASP Lab
    historic earlier web page claims 1979 nevertheless it little doubt did not actually possess a status wait on then. Presumably
    that was when the seed was planted.) The GRASP lab aloof exists nonetheless the title
    now stands for “Regular Robotics, Automation, Sensing and Notion”. I
    do not know what was indecent with the the favourite, nonetheless the unique title covers
    further areas so I allege it is able to blueprint further funding. Whereas GRASP
    was nominally a robotics lab, picture processing and graphics are related. I
    had been with {hardware} architectures for picture processing, manipulation,
    and present from earlier than the originate up of my Grad faculty days. My Masters
    thesis was on the assassinate and implementation of a direct obtain entry to
    video body buffer. This type of present was significantly unique in these
    days, as in opposition to now the save a strong elevated effectivity software
    may be expose in a USB widget for $1.98 on eBay.
    My Ph.D. was on a multiprocessor {hardware} structure for manipulating
    and exhibiting segmented imagery. In simple phrases (and there doubtlessly
    had been no refined phrases), this was surely a excessive effectivity windowing
    scheme. The body buffer was constructed and mature;
    the part present processor was handiest simulated in gadget,
    though that was mature for on the least one industrial utility. My passion
    in {hardware} architectures for 3D was triggered by
    diversified discussions with Anthony Reynolds, who had been very energetic
    in organising recommendations for gadget rendering (very non-valid-time)
    of scientific information. I had provide the favourite opinion for the
    advise quantity rendering methodology that started us on the
    boulevard to all these applications in a dream –
    actually! πŸ™‚ Passable immersion in technical discussions will enact that.
    So the next morning, I acknowledged to Anthony: “Let’s write a paper
    on {hardware} for advise quantity rendering”, (It is doubtlessly the ultimate
    paper inside the References.) One in all my college students, Ed Walsh,
    then led a enterprise crew together with Drew Wolff and Larry Ashery
    which designed and constructed the favourite “Voxel Processor
    Prototype” (VPP) loosely primarily based totally on that paper.

    The VPP digital {hardware} occupied a hex-width 9 slot DEC (Digital Gear
    Firm, R.I.P.) backplane and was managed
    by a DEC PDP-11 minicomputer by a DR11-B
    parallel interface. The boards had manila file folders between them for
    insulation since they’d been actually now not meant to be in such shut quarters
    as a result of wire-wrap pins sticking up out of the board and the connectors
    are on 1/2 hump facilities.
    Even card guides arrange now not need helped. πŸ˜‰ The VPP was related
    to an mature scrapped CT scanner console equipped by the Well being facility of
    the School of Pennsylvania (HUP), actually mature handiest for its trackball and
    video video show. Nonetheless this “furnishings” added drastically to the coolness issue
    for demos. πŸ™‚ And the issue was VERY spectacular, being prepared manipulate
    a 3D look of a 64-dice (64x64x64 array) of Eight bit “voxels” totally in legitimate
    time (16 frames per second) together with gray scale mapping by a lookup desk
    and depth shading. On the time, this WAS decreasing edge no subject its pathetic
    decision. The working joke is that the VPP was the primary legitimate {hardware} to
    possess been developed at UPenn given that ENIAC. πŸ˜‰ And even it wasn’t such
    a joke. Quantity information may be downloaded in a number of seconds every and every
    gash flying by on the quilt as a result of it bought right here in, after which the general
    3D dataset may be displayed and
    manipulated immediately in valid-time. Most totally different applications needed to
    arrange floor objects first which took awhile
    and had severe restrictions on what is going on to be carried out
    with them in valid-time as they’d been produced from polygons and
    if lower open would direct an empty inside.
    The VPP utilized an octree-based totally coordinate sequence (from the dream! We
    did not manufacture the octree opinion, however had doubtlessly study a paper the save
    they’d been talked about.) for
    getting access to the article information to implement the wait on-to-entrance present algorithm.
    This gave the affect actually clever on the time however surely was appropriate overly
    advanced. No a lot lower than it bought us started!
    Given that complete information was in its favourite voxel
    bag, the VPP may presumably effectively presumably gash, cube, and take out areas or density
    values with out restrictions and at corpulent flee.

    The VPP digital boards and backplane aloof dwell on:



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    Voxel Processor Prototype 9 Slot DEC Hex-Width Backplane with Regular Manila File Folder Separators

    The next has photographs of the general boards, backplane, and killer fan:

    This reveals the VPP whole with the favourite
    manila file folder separators of their favourite locations as or now not it’s now not going
    the VPP had ever been disassembled ahead of taking these photographs,
    and the individual hand wire-wrapped boards and backplane together with the
    favourite structure drawing and “Killer Fan” which attacked Ed on on the least
    one event with severe harm to Ed (now to not the fan). The spacious boards
    in expose inside the PDF are: DREW (Drew Wolff), Processors II,
    I, and III (Larry Ashery), Voxel Recordsdata, and the Host Interface (Ed Walsh).
    I do not know why the Processor boards are out of expose or if it issues.
    The totally different boards are the LSI-11 DRAM and VPP SRAM, and the video DAC.
    I equipped the DAC board, all that stays of my Masters Thesis body buffer.
    The runt PCB inside the backplane is a DEC bus terminator. The three Processor boards
    generated the coordinates and the Voxel Recordsdata board did the chopping and
    shading, maybe. Ed doubtlessly is aware of what that and the DREW board actually did.


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    Voxel Processor Prototype Gloomy Flooring and Multiplanar Reformatteed
    Photographs

    Given that VPP {hardware} handiest generated rendered pictures from the 64-dice
    and never utilizing a annotation, and one picture at a time on the video video show, photographs
    of the video show should possess been scanned into the Jurassic equal
    of Photoshop and combined together with textual convey materials to make these, or further most likely
    pasted with strips of textual convey materials onto a dismal matt and rephotographed.
    Nonetheless every and every of the petite pictures was rendered in upright valid-time. πŸ˜‰

    The next is a hyperlink to a YouTube video that reveals the VPP in flow into at
    GRASP Lab. Proper right here is the save the valid-time flow into was. πŸ˜‰

    It is now not going that someone on the face of the Planet would know applications to make
    the issue work now. OK, which is maybe now not totally appropriate. I wager Ed may presumably effectively presumably if a
    PDP-11 or LSI-11 (with parallel interface), trackball, and RS170
    TV video show (together with a trustworthy incentive) may be came upon on eBay. πŸ™‚
    There had been a good selection of demos and newspaper and journal articles. A
    selection of study papers had been written primarily based totally on the VPP
    and proposed future expertise. At some stage, a separate rep 22 state of affairs
    was made available to be often known as the “GRIP Lab” (presumably: GRASP
    Picture Processing Lab) was discipline up with the precept enchantment being the
    VPP. I actually do not possess any opinion no matter grew to change into of that facility, though it was
    talked about in a UPenn e-newsletter after we left. If the CT console
    had slot in a Nissan hatchback, I may presumably effectively presumably
    possess taken it dwelling for frail circumstances’ sake. πŸ™‚ (Then finding a
    track-ball and TV video show may be no anxiousness!)

    I’d doubtlessly possess been
    convey materials to proceed alongside the tutorial route writing papers with incremental
    and trivial enhancements to the voxel processor structure. Nonetheless that was
    now to not be.
    But some other pupil, David Talton, was attentive to the enchancment and decided to
    write a hypothetical trade understanding to compose and market a valid-time 3D
    scientific workstation for an entrepreneurial route enterprise. Then Dave,
    Anthony, and Ed decided to enact it for legitimate. πŸ™‚ Initially save, I
    was handiest presupposed to be a specialist, however this gave the affect worship too highly effective enjoyable
    to go up. And furthermore I had been neglecting
    my educational publish-or-perish requirements (and there was moreover
    some political intrigue with the tenure decision), so I
    left UPenn earlier than being formally kicked out. And the relief,
    as they exclaim, is historic earlier. πŸ™‚



  • Encourage to Steady-Time 3D Visualization Table of Contents.

    Dynamic Digital Shows

    Dynamic Digital Shows, Inc. (DDD or 3D, Inc.) was based on
    April Fools’ Day in 1985 (that should possess implied one thing!) on my own
    and the three college students (Anthony Reynolds, David Talton, and Ed Walsh)
    with the intent of commercializing the voxel processor structure
    for valid-time quantity visualization expertise for scientific purposes.
    Preliminary planning was carried out in empty lecture rooms at UPenn or on the Photo voltaic
    porch at my dwelling. Anthony had the favourite scientific visualization expertise
    utilizing gadget and an famed, is de facto who bought us drawn to this complete
    rep 22 state of affairs inside the first residing, Dave was the trade type, and Ed was the
    {hardware} guru however moreover has been acknowledged to enact gadget. So further exactly,
    Dave based the corporate since that is what trade sorts enact, and we (the
    totally different three) went alongside. πŸ™‚

    (Curiously, there may very well be larger than one firm now (in 2019) often known as Dynamic
    Digital Shows, with fully positively assuredly no relationship
    to our 3D!)

    DDD started out in a 10×10 foot room inside the
    School Metropolis Science Middle, an incubator rep 22 state of affairs in Philadelphia, PA
    shut to the School of Pennsylvania and Drexel School.
    For awhile I retained my educational residing so handiest Three guys needed to swimsuit into that
    petite rep 22 state of affairs, smaller than a storage! With some seed funding from the Benjamin
    Franklin Skills Companions, DDD then hasty expanded to fairly so quite a lot of rooms
    there after which I joined corpulent-time.

    The precept machine primarily based totally on the voxel processor structure to be constructed after
    the VPP was dubbed Voxelscope I (VS1), utilizing wire-wrapped boards (equal to
    these inside the VPP). The wire-wrapping was carried out by a lady in Up to date Jersey to whom
    Ed would deliver the prototyping boards with sockets and pins put in, alongside
    with a netlist, wire, and a wire-wrap instrument. The Netlist was generated
    by Ed-CAD, developed utilizing YACC. The transfers took residing beneath the on-ramp
    to the Ben Franklin bridge, worship one thing notorious. πŸ™‚
    The boards had been then buzzed out for accuracy by
    Ed’s grandparents on their kitchen desk. VS1 mature a an an identical
    wait on-to-entrance algorithm as a result of the VPP nevertheless it little doubt was now primarily based totally on a gash-by-gash
    obtain entry to sequence which is fairly quite a bit easier to obtain one’s thoughts spherical than
    octrees. The Host was a DEC MicroVax II.

    The next VS1 cover-photography had been expose in a binder together with the VPP photographs
    and heaps of of 35 mm slides of all types of stuff:


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    Voxelscope I Masks Photographs. First Row: Multiplanar Reformatting; 2nd Row: 3D Gloomy Flooring

    The annotation was generated by the gadget so no further decreasing and pasting. πŸ™‚

    The next is a hyperlink to a YouTube video of VS1. It is now not acknowledged what the
    meant goal market was and it has no audio, and it’s extended and foolish.

    VS1 was launched to the World (or on the least the diagnostic neighborhood)
    on the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) technical/substitute
    expose/assembly, the week after Thanksgiving 1988. RSNA was HUGE – occupying over
    2 whole flooring of the massive McCormick Place in downtown Chicago, IL.
    DDD had a 10×20 foot professionally-designed and constructed prefab
    product sales rep 22 state of affairs on the second floor, the save the pion companies had been positioned.
    We drove out to Chicago in a rented van with our valuable cargo of
    the Voxelscope I in its DEC BA11 field, MicrovAX II clone (dependable DEC boards
    in a cheezy enclosure), and two spacious heavy video screens.
    We stayed in a single day in a motel with the van parked conspicuously beneath
    a mental light, lest someone take dangle of a elaborate to the van (and toss the
    valuable stuff on the side of the boulevard).
    Now Chicago is a union metropolis, so there had been strict obstacles on
    what non-union of us had been allowed to enact in putting the product sales rep 22 state of affairs collectively
    together with points worship plugging
    a vitality strip into {an electrical} outlet or hammering a nail. πŸ™
    So until we bought mature to this and favourite it, the union retailer enforcer-kinds
    may be exhibiting up on a typical basis. They’d been on the whole fairly well mannered.

    The pair of video screens was the extent of curiosity of the product sales rep 22 state of affairs,
    exhibiting sequences of skulls and such from legitimate CT datasets
    worship these inside the above photographs
    being rotated, sliced, and diced at fairly hasty replace expenses.
    The instructions for performing the operations had been captured and
    recorded nonetheless the exact voxel processing was carried out in valid-time primarily based totally
    on the saved program. Thus, no individual wished to be frequently spinning
    the trackball, though that may presumably effectively presumably possess been organized upon arrange a query to. πŸ™‚
    The screens had been up excessive so firm could not
    obtain shut ample to locate how unfortunate the decision was. πŸ™ πŸ™‚
    It’s believed that VS1 had a microcode-based totally pipeline working at 10 MHz so
    {that a} 128-dice (2,097,152 voxels) may be manipulated at spherical 5 pictures
    per second. The present was 256×256 pixels on a 60 Hz non-interlaced present –
    double that of VPP. Nonetheless object rep 22 state of affairs may be configured to
    be any arbitrary rectangular prism as extended as a result of the general information
    match into the voxel processor’s reminiscence. The photographs, above, are standard
    of the shows at RSNA.

    By method of consumer gadget, this was now not even 1 / 4 step up from the VPP,
    and was actually appropriate a teaser to introduce DDD to the scientific imaging
    neighborhood. It arrange now not need been
    seemingly to inform a VS1 regardless of the reality that any particular person was loopy ample to need one.
    After the product sales rep 22 state of affairs was dismantled on the top of the expose, a few of us
    flew wait on to Phila. One 13 hour power with an in a single day finish at a low-fee motel
    was ample, thanks. πŸ™‚ Nonetheless people who flew did wait on to lift the instruments
    inside after they arrived on the Science Middle loading dock.

    As soon as mission funding was secured in 1990
    (in the end reaching one thing worship $8,000,000),
    we moved into half the underside floor (spherical
    10,000 sq. toes) inside the “130 establishing” of the Wyeth
    place of commercial park in St. Davids, PA, a suburb of
    Philadelphia, rising to spherical 35 employees earlier than being obtained by
    Picker International. With legitimate funding (on the least for
    these days), one moreover will get supposedly legitimate Administration paid legitimate cash
    – CEO, CFO, Product sales, Advertising. Advertising wasn’t too faulty and the CEO did
    a few of that as efficiently. Product sales (the of us employed by Administration that’s)
    was a joke, one step above slicky mature
    car salesperson-kinds or politicians: “We can provide 125 p.c effort.”.
    I am now not clear the Product sales power ever purchased something. Nonetheless the CEO’s
    high-priced fits and greasy hair may presumably effectively presumably truthful possess helped inside the finish.
    Until we had a “legitimate” CFO, Talton served in that potential
    and aloof did the accounting, balancing the books to the penny. πŸ™‚

    The VCs wished to grasp out $1,000,000 insurance coverage protection insurance coverage insurance policies on the Founders
    however we refused. Ed’s invoked his First Regulation: “By no method be value
    further dreary than alive.”. πŸ™‚ So the insurance coverage insurance policies had been highly effective further modest and would
    provide no temptation to rent a Guido-form if funds went south.

    The VCs even introduced in a type of motivational specialists to the tune
    of one thing worship $8,000 for a pair hours work to attend on encourage
    the DDD employees (worship that wasn’t what we had been all about already).
    Nonetheless even the VCs may presumably effectively presumably leer that he was nothing larger than an overpriced
    snake oil salesman and despatched him packing after handiest half the disbursed
    time.

    The precept workstation to be critically marketed was Voxelscope II (VS2)
    which had drastically enhanced quantity reminiscence and elevated present decision.
    Sadly, that bought right here at a payment and it, and all its successors
    by no means even bought right here shut to attaining the upright video-price valid-time
    effectivity of the VPP,
    which might possess required the vastly parallel expertise inside the Patent.
    Nonetheless even very early on, VS2 had significantly legitimate gadget with a Graphical Shopper
    Interface (GUI) and ample capabilities to be credible, on the least for demos
    together with instantaneous Multi-Planar Reformatting (MPR) which may presumably effectively presumably present
    a gash though the article at any depth aligned with one among the many crucial axes
    (axial, saggital, or coronal) or at an arbitrary angle, as efficiently as
    valid-time (a part of a second, however now not video value)
    3D gloomy floor with density selection and chopping.
    A Motorola 68000-based totally VME bus single board laptop
    changed the PDP-11 or VAX (sorry DEC) and applied the excessive stage
    management and Graphical Shopper Interface (GUI), ran the file
    scheme, and interfaced to the outside world.

    At some stage, a crude-to-beautiful rendering contrivance was applied whereby
    the preliminary look was computed at 1/2 or 1/Four decision in object
    rep 22 state of affairs and zoomed up in picture rep 22 state of affairs, so the time to render
    a picture may be lower to appropriate over 1/Eighth or 1/64 of that for the corpulent
    decision dataset, respectively. Then if if no unique look was often known as
    for, the corpulent decision mannequin would substitute it. This drastically enhanced the
    feal since there was a solely valid-time response to mouse flow into
    or directions. It could possibly presumably effectively presumably truthful possess even been a multi-step route of – 1/Four then 1/2 then
    corpulent decision.

    These photographs of the Voxelscope II cowl are standard of the sorts of rendering
    equipped by the scheme.


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    Voxelscope II Masks Photographs. Combination of 3D Gloomy Flooring, Multiplanar Reformatting, and Segmentation

    And listed below are some advertising information. Quite a lot of the above photographs
    come from these, so if all you’re after is ideal pictures, no should certain
    there. πŸ˜‰

    The next is a hyperlink to a YouTube video of VS2.

    The voxel processor {hardware} of the Voxelscope II consisted of 5 hex-width
    DEC bag-factor custom-made PCBs and MicroVAX reminiscence (DRAM) modules.
    For some motive we caught with the DEC bag issue and
    edge connectors no subject it being a methods from optimum.

    • Host Interface (HI2): The hyperlink to the Sparc host however moreover built-in
      the microcode engine (though the microcode itself was disbursed amongst
      totally different boards), and grasp timing controller.
    • Coordinate Transform (CT2) Generates Four coordinates in 3D or 2-D
      rep 22 state of affairs utilizing Four Waferscale WS59032s, 32 bit variations of the AMD2901 bit
      gash ALU. For wait on-to-entrance, the CT stepped by an integer coordinate
      in object rep 22 state of affairs (reminiscence sort out) with mounted stage coordinates in picture rep 22 state of affairs
      (X’Y’Z’).
    • Object Memory MicroVAX reminiscence modules: These equipped a flow into of
      voxels primarily based totally on addresses from the CT board.
    • Recordsdata Transform (DT2): Extracts/converts
      voxel information primarily based totally on density or totally different parameters utilizing
      fairly so quite a lot of lookup tables amongst totally different useful objects. This was
      often known as “Recordsdata Translation” in some documentation however recurrently
      often known as DOTS: “Dynamic Object Thresholding and Slicing”
      from the Patent.
    • Voxel Buffer (VB2): Extreme flee random obtain entry to reminiscence (SRAM)
      accessible by the firmware the save the closing picture is constructed.
    • Physique Buffer (FB2): Extreme decision (for the time) present utilizing
      twin port VRAM together with lookup tables for every and every of the RGB channels. For
      Voxelscope II, it was configured to 768 x 576 pixels in allege that the precept window
      may presumably effectively presumably even be a high-quality spherical 512 sq.. πŸ™‚ Recordsdata from
      the VB may be “blitted” into arbitrary areas of the FB at excessive flee.

    There had been a number of days of fright when Advertising came upon that
    at clear orientations, artifacts affectionately often known as “holes”
    seemed as a dismal grid inside the rendered pictures. These had been expose
    inside the prior implementations as efficiently however had been omitted. We figured, appropriate
    commerce the orientation and so they’ll certain away. πŸ™‚ Now, alternatively, Advertising
    was afraid that prospects would complain and they’d possess to concoct
    some techno-babble-based totally clarification. Truly, holes
    seemed when present pixels did not line up with any voxels
    oriented orthogonal to
    the quilt, in order that they’d been by no means crammed in. The size issue may be diminished
    for all views as a transparent up, however then picture high quality would endure. After some
    head scratching, it was hypothesized after which confirmed that as extended as
    one among the many gash axes lined up with X or Y on the quilt, there may be
    no holes at a 1:1 (or smaller) scale issue.
    So the rendering algorithm was injury up into two formulation: An preliminary wait on-to-entrance
    traversal as earlier than (at 1:1) with the Sparc determining a trustworthy
    orientation that aligned with X or Y, and a 2-D bilinear rotation
    applied in microcode as a submit processing step. This might often presumably effectively presumably moreover
    be mature to implement zoom with first value picture high quality
    as extended as a result of the magnification wasn’t too excessive.
    Common, the top consequence was fairly certified
    and the rendering time was handiest elevated by a actually runt a part of a second.
    Since these machines had been now not producing pictures on the corpulent video value,
    that was insignificant.

    No abstract of our historic earlier may be whole with out the “yogurt
    shaker” musings. At any time when the technical challenges grew to change into nerve-racking
    (as with the “gap” allege), Ed and I’d speculate on what a extra in-depth
    trade mannequin may be. The working joke was to market yogurt
    shakers. Luxuriate in quite a few frivolous items, this might often presumably effectively be a fad that may presumably effectively presumably
    promote a whole bunch of 1000’s of objects whereas it lasted. Such ideas had been strengthened
    each day as a result of Matt #1 on the whole bought right here in with a yogurt in hand and the
    shaking produced essentially the most putrid gluppety-glup sound. He no query
    relished inside the reactions it constituted of us. Every one who eats
    yogurt is aware of that it’s crucial to uniformly redistribute the lumps that
    on the whole congregate on the underside. What higher method to enact
    that than a excessive tech yogurt shaker – a mini mannequin of the in-can
    paint mixers expose in {hardware} shops and residential facilities. And so they additionally make
    the equal type of gluppety-glup sound. πŸ™‚ Of route it may probably most likely most likely presumably effectively presumably be
    suitably stylish and fully digitally programmable by mark, type, and
    mannequin of yogurt to deliver the optimum journey. (I am now not clear if
    we realized on the time that it may probably most likely most likely presumably effectively be Internet related for each
    distant operation and firmware upgrades, this was method earlier than the
    Internet of Points.) Now in spite of everything, we had fully no passion in
    designing this sort of gadget, highly effective a lot much less initiating a model unique trade or altering
    this one, regardless of the reality that there had been a spacious market. Nonetheless it was one thing for
    idle dialogue. And there had been moreover printer buffers as an
    numerous if yogurt shakers ran into technical or appropriate issues. πŸ˜‰

    Of route, as soon as there was a sound Advertising division,
    the legitimate Software sorts (led by Eddie Wyatt) had been frequently
    slowing points down anyhow inside the fervour of generality – or to focus
    on sides prospects may presumably effectively presumably actually care about! What a conecpt? πŸ˜‰
    One instance was Multi-Planar
    Reformatting or MPR the save a single lower alongside one among the many crucial
    planes – axial (XY), saggital (YZ), coronal (XZ) –
    or at an arbitrary angle and even bent lower
    by the article is displayed.
    MPR may presumably effectively presumably possess flee at corpulent video expenses on any of the machines,
    however no subject how exhausting I attempted to persuade Software
    to boost the effectivity, it by no means chugged alongside at larger than a
    couple frames per second. πŸ™ πŸ™‚ And spacious portion of the VS2 {hardware}
    capabilities had been by no means exploited due to function priority as
    specific by Advertising.

    Anthony had been unhappy since we transitioned to
    a corporation fairly than a tutorial endeavor, threatening to stop nearly
    each day over one issue or some other. So after spherical the 20th time,
    we (totally different Three Founders) lastly had ample and
    acknowledged “OK” fairly than “we’re sorry”. He was particularly upset when someone
    would certain straight to Eddie with a gadget arrange a query to and now not respect his
    administration residing, though that doubtlessly wasn’t the general motive.
    There was doubtlessly a cultural distinction that neither he nor we fully
    understood.

    Then there had been the “Window Wars”. πŸ™‚ Early on When the VS2
    Graphical Shopper Interface (GUI) was being developed and Ed was doing
    most of the gadget, I might be engaged on microcode in a single nook of
    the simpler rooms we had inside the Science Middle, whereas Ed was in some other nook.
    I am a stickler for window measurement and residing to be legitimate to the pixel,
    as efficiently as closing centered around the cursor when zooming.
    I’d make a commerce or Ed would make a commerce and name out to every and each-different
    to retest. “The residing is off by one pixel!.” or “It is bought
    a line of pixels from the earlier window.” or “Now or now not it’s
    too runt by one pixel” or “The final window jumped left zooming in.” πŸ™‚
    And so it went…. These had been bugs! Nonetheless inside the finish the top consequence was
    nice (on the least in as quite a bit as now as these boundary circumstances had been
    ). Proper right here is not like some in the intervening time supported purposes
    “legitimate” companies the save boundary state of affairs bugs
    that arrange now not need been tolerated at DDD are aloof expose. That
    episode was doubtlessly the closest the Founders bought right here to blows at DDD.
    I am exaggerating appropriate a wee bit as a result of it was frequently civilized. What’s
    an error of a pixel or two amongst firm? πŸ˜‰

    Voxelscope II was the primary machine that we tried to advertise in a crucial method
    with the marketing hype proclaiming that it was handiest the size of a
    dishwasher
    . πŸ˜‰ (It was acknowledged internally as a result of the “Tank”.)
    And by that point, VS2 had a sizeable discipline of capabilities as well
    to MPR and 3D with a fairly polished GUI which built-in what may be
    wished for it to be clinically indispensable. Or so we hoped.

    That dishwasher-measurement enclosure held the custom-made
    VS2 board discipline, Motorola 68000-based totally host, one or two 300 MB (WOW!) 5-1/4
    hump harddrives, DC vitality presents, corpulent-measurement rack-mount
    9 observe 1/2 hump reel-reel autoloading tape
    power, and 9600 baud modem for distant technical improve.
    A excessive decision CRT coloration video show, keyboard,
    and mouse carried out the scheme.
    (Sorry trackball, A mouse is easier to
    make use of for nearly all of the items excluding 3D rotation, which even with VS2
    was handiest a runt subset of the workstation’s GUI. A pill may presumably effectively presumably may presumably effectively presumably
    possess been even higher however they’d been extra-or-much much less out of mannequin.

    Ed, Matt Donham (legit worker #5 after the Founders #1-4), and I did most
    of the digital assassinate. Ed did HI2, Matt did FB2 (and all subsequent FBs), and
    I did DT2 and presumably CT2 and VB2. Whereas laptop networking was on the initiating save
    developed inside the unhurried 1960s with ARPANET,
    what is going on to be opinion to be the Internet everybody is aware of these days started
    with TCP/IP specs being solidified in 1983. Nonetheless, even in 1989
    when VS2 was designed, the World Large Internet (WWW) did now not exist. No Internet internet websites,
    no browsers, and no engines like google. So, figuring out trustworthy formulation
    was now not a subject of typing in a discipline of key phrases to in discovering a good selection of
    selections by section quantity or function in seconds. DDD had actually a
    12 foot extended WALL ground-to-ceiling inside the precept conference room crammed
    with databooks for digital formulation from companies worship
    Advanced Micro Devices, Fairchild, Motorola, RCA, Signetics (together with
    their proprietary write-handiest reminiscence with limitless potential, very indispensable
    for bit buckets), Texas Gadgets, and heaps of others. Regular procuring the
    databooks supposed cell phone calls and/or snail-mail on the whole to
    electronics distributors however most steadily advise to producers – and
    unending ready. Then to be ready to assassinate samples or
    expose formulation on the whole required organising a relationship with the
    distributors. Then exact ordering and further delays. And for the
    runt parts DDD required for prototyping (and even
    manufacturing), getting their consideration was recurrently a discipline.

    Every of the digital designers did their possess schematic bewitch utilizing OrCad ESP
    for DOS on i286 PCs with coloration VGA CRT screens, most steadily
    working DOS 6.2. Early on,
    most of the PCs had been arrange collectively by some hole-in-the-wall laptop outfit
    in a neighborhood strip mall – less expensive, grotesque, however legit. Shortly we
    went with name-manufacturers worship Northgate or Gateway 2000.
    I did the general PCB structure for VS2 utilizing the DOS mannequin of Tango PCB
    as a brainless direct whereas fairly heaps of points.
    The GUIs for the DOS variations of each OrCad and Tango are aloof
    a methods marvelous for my section when put subsequent with these of the usual Dwelling home windows variations
    of the equal purposes (which aloof exist to in the intervening time),
    and with out their gadget bloat of
    creeping featurism. They did all of the items we wished.
    PLD programming mature CUPL for DOS and an InLab 28 programmer,
    which excluding for the one tantalum capacitor that exploded with out
    warning :), was very legit. Even the tantalum bomb causes no harm.
    Lastly, I’ve mature it for private initiatives considerably now not too extended in the past.
    Preliminary PCB structure for the spacious boards
    was carried out with a separate autorouter often known as “Substantial Route”, moreover beneath DOS.
    Nonetheless whereas it was ready to generate appropriate
    connections primarily based totally on the netlist and formulation placement,
    the routing high quality wasn’t very upright. So there was fairly quite a bit
    of hand cleanup that wished to be carried out afterwards as a result of the output of
    the autorouter would invariably possess a crucial case of “take dangle of the
    scenic route” and the “jigglies” for heaps of traces. I’d event
    with the favourite clothier earlier than at hand-route crucial indicators
    and after routing to mumble that the paths for robotically generated
    routes weren’t totally ridiculous (or too grotesque!), then doing no matter
    cleanup was wished. The wiggly traces doubtlessly weren’t of gargantuan kill finish consequence
    (excluding esthetically), however a clock stamp that went around the perimeter
    of the board to a vacation spot an hump away may be, thus the hand routing
    for these indicators.

    The autorouter was very compute-intensive and drove the should improve
    to sooner and sooner PCs. A single flee may presumably effectively presumably take dangle of 12 hours on an i286 PC.
    There was an unwritten rule at St. Davids that no individual possess a sooner PC
    than mine and its twin at dwelling, supposedly justified by the requirements
    of the autorouter. The ultimate one was a Gateway 2000, 100 MHz Pentium
    desktop doubtlessly moreover working DOS 6.2, however with
    Dwelling home windows 3.1, purchased around the time of the foul
    Pentium floating stage worm. Mine had been neat. They’d been later upgraded
    to on the least Dwelling home windows 95. πŸ™‚

    Oh, and the digital designers knew that utilizing a monostable anyplace on their
    board(s) with out 15 justifications was standards for quick dismissal. πŸ˜‰
    I am fairly clear that there had been NO monostables in any of these applications.
    (Regardless of the reality that rumor has it a delay line snuck onto one among the many boards, which
    is nearly as forbidden.)

    VS2s had been assembled by our Manufacturing division led by Stan Dzomba,
    who had three Pointers of Existence: Do not forged off
    a rental, do not obtain married,
    do not possess younger of us. He violated all of them however gave the affect tickled ample.
    I’d add: “Do not forged off a ship” primarily based totally on my journey with a fair good friend of
    mine and his 23 foot sloop. πŸ™‚
    There was one totally different worker in Manufacturing,
    Mike Riley to enact the exact meeting work.
    Manufacturing of VS2s consisted largely of mounting the cardboard cage, vitality
    presents, host, and disk power(s), and establishing the wiring harnesses.
    Dave O’Neill (a type of customary trigger technician and diagnostic
    gadget developer type) wrote code to attend on with the exact testing.
    PCBs had been fabbed, stuffed, and examined by a sub-contractor utilizing Dave O.’s
    purposes. There was no legitimate qc on the time, so I’d certain into
    Manufacturing and examine periodically. Sooner or later I came upon that it was
    seemingly to pull wires from terminal lugs inside the vitality distribution
    field by appropriate gently wiggling them. They virtually fell apart.
    Pointless to advise, this was asking
    for grief, particularly being inside the AC vitality wiring.
    The indecent crimp instrument die was doubtlessly being mature for the wire measurement.
    I used to be now not tickled and made it acknowledged, nearly little doubt too
    forcefully with inadequate tact. πŸ™ πŸ™‚ Nonetheless all subsequent
    crimps had been efficiently carried out!

    Dave O. (and others) knew of my passion in electronics restore and
    would elevate in runt broken objects from time-to-time for “overview”.
    I rep one morning seeing a HUGE HEAVY RCA console
    TV being wheel into Manufacturing on a furnishings dolly.
    “It is dreary.”. Dave and I did restore it, faulty flyback
    transformer. Manufacturing had tossed out a high-quality DMM, which I
    later repaired as documented in
    Repair Temporary
    #46: Beckman Mannequin 310B Digital Multimeter with Random Level to
    .
    It has persevered to function until very now not too extended in the past, however now there are
    points with the calibration, which may very well be a related failure.
    I did not on the whole obtain entangled with actually repairing
    Voxelscope {hardware}, however had been caught diagnosing a failure at circumstances primarily based totally on
    artifacts inside the displayed picture. Microcode bugs had been some other subject.

    Testing VS2s was advert-hoc in these days, though Advertising was on the whole fairly
    adept at discovering bugs, most steadily crashing the scheme by sitting on the
    keyboard. Why did not Engineering recall to mind that methodology? πŸ™‚

    A complete of spherical 20 VS2-based totally workstations had been
    ever constructed and most had been mature (I am being obliging) in diversified
    educating hospitals so we’d exclaim there was an put in wicked.
    I ponder if any dwell on, regardless of the reality that inside the nook of a sub-basement
    storage room. πŸ™ πŸ™‚ I mature to own piles of VS2 boards eradicated when
    applications had been upgraded however they possess extended since been scrapped.
    I opinion I had saved a complete discipline however now can now not in discovering it.
    So there may presumably effectively presumably truthful now not be a surviving VS2 board-field anyplace on the Planet.

    There was one non-3D-connected incident at St. Davids: We bought right here in a single morning
    to go looking out the residing had been burglarized. The thieves made off with a pair
    of Sparc workstations (together with mine), Len’s PC, and a Sony Diskman.
    I do not assume highly effective further was taken. Fortuitously all of the items was backed up
    and so they did not take dangle of my bike, which had
    a wimpy lock on it. πŸ™‚ Their plans may presumably effectively presumably truthful possess been aborted when of their
    haste to disconnect stuff, a cable fell
    throughout the clock radio on my desk turning it on. With stunning voices
    or observe, the others may presumably effectively presumably truthful possess panicked, so everybody left.
    The radio was enjoying after we arrived. I do not
    know if the perpetrators had been ever caught though rumor had it that’s was an
    inside (Wyath) job.



  • Encourage to Steady-Time 3D Visualization Table of Contents.

    Picker International

    Picker International (Cleveland, Ohio)
    was one among the many most crucial producers of scientific imaging instruments,
    having started as an X-ray machine firm in 1909. They expanded to
    excessive tech imaging modalities together with Computed Tomography (CT or CAT),
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission
    Tomography (PET), ultrasound, and others, whereas
    aloof providing customary (however customary) X-ray instruments.
    Throughout the early 1990s Picker wished a platform for a radiation treatment
    planning scheme that was being developed to help firm with their
    high-end CT scanners. They grew to change into drawn to the
    DDD expertise to bag a aggressive benefit and gave us some
    further funding (whereas aloof DDD) to boost the grief. Now
    with Picker, all of the items needed to possess a “Q” inside the title – standing for high quality
    or one thing. So after some repackaging and assassinate enhancements
    together with optimization for ray tracing, what would doubtlessly possess been
    often known as Voxelscope III (VS3) grew to change into the VoxelQ (or just “VQ”)
    to be integrated into the AcQSim or
    AcQPlan treatment planning scheme, and to be bundled with high-end
    CT scanners, amongst others.

    Listed beneath are standard examples of VoxelQ shows. These are largely handiest home windows,
    now not the corpulent cowl which is further alongside the traces of the ultimate block of
    AcQSim photographs.


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    VoxelQ Multiplanar Reformatting (Axial, Saggital, Coronal, Bent)


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    VoxelQ Gloomy Flooring


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    VoxelQ Quantity Rendering


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    VoxelQ Segmentation


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    VoxelQ Digital Endoscopy


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    AcQSim Masks Examples

    Proper right here is a few Advertising blurb. Quite a lot of the above photographs come from these.

    The next is a hyperlink to a YouTube video of VQ. Proper here is what you obtain
    with legitimate Advertising sorts at work with a sound Advertising funds:

    At some stage spherical 1992, DDD was formally
    obtained by Picker with the VCs (Vulture Capitalists)
    to obtain royalties primarily based totally on objects purchased over three years.
    Calling them that title may presumably effectively presumably be notorious as they
    gave the affect comely ample and had been respectful of the Engineering personnel.
    Dealing with DDD Administration when money drift wasn’t marvelous
    may presumably effectively presumably truthful possess been some other subject, though I am clear the “Deal Nearer Cookies”
    equipped by our VC-employed CEO helped. πŸ™‚ Nonetheless
    had DDD now not been obtained by Picker, we’d possess needed to shut inside days
    as a result of the funding burn value was unsustainable. Nonetheless, the
    VCs would possess come out higher inside the occasion that they’d structured the
    deal to attend on-end load the royalties as most applications had been
    positioned in 12 months three, however on the least they did not lose their shirts inside the finish.

    Picker Administration had all DDD employees attend a working towards route often known as
    one thing worship “TQM” for “Complete Superb Administration”. (There may very well be that
    “Q” some other time.) Somebody who has labored for a spacious firm doubtlessly has
    continued one thing an an identical. We had been all bused out to Cleveland to
    bear in mind of some droid certain on and on about how everybody has to work
    together with pathetic interactive anecdotes to present it.
    Watching paint dry would possess been further productive.

    Whereas the VPP and Voxelscopes I and II rendered “wait on-to-entrance” to implement
    hidden floor removing, the redesigned VoxelQ {hardware} was
    optimized for ray tracing with quantity rendering capabilities.
    VQ projected a ray from every and every pixel on the present wait on by the article
    and was ready to make computations alongside the mannequin.
    An modern sub-voxel search algorithm rendered highly effective further sensible
    surfaces utilizing considerably simple floor shading algorithms. Even Anthony
    was impressed with the picture high quality when this technique was first
    simulated in gadget with the intent of incorporating it into
    the microcode – and he was most acquainted what else
    was being carried out in gadget, which may presumably effectively presumably render the most convenient pictures since there
    had been fewer time constraints. In addition to to
    hidden floor removing and gradient shading, this system helps diversified
    sorts of transparency
    with perspective enabling the simulation of X-ray views (“reprojection”)
    as efficiently as rendering translucent organs. Quite a lot of the changes had been
    applied in microcode with considerably runt changes to the exact {hardware}.
    Nonetheless the important thing innovation that differentiated VoxelQ from the machines earlier than it
    was the “Object Resampling Memory” (ORM) which generated tri-linearly
    interpolated voxel information primarily based totally on corpulent 3D coordinates.
    Truly, the eight adjoining voxels closest to the specified
    coordinate inside the favourite dataset had been
    accessed concurrently and an interpolated finish consequence was computed
    auto-magically. For successive coordinates that had been shut collectively
    (as they’re going to be for ray tracing), the unbelievable throughput may presumably effectively presumably methodology
    10 million tri-linearly interpolated voxels per second. The ORM was the
    handiest totally unique custom-made board and changed the MicroVAX reminiscence.

    Shading of the rendered objects is crucial to the considered 3D depth
    in a static present of a single picture (no stereo). Movement parallax moreover
    contributes to this however handiest if the replace value is excessive ample.
    The VPP handiest had “depth shading”, whereby every and every pixel’s
    payment was modified by distance from the viewer. Subsequent machines mature
    “gradient shading” which moreover calculated the native price-of-commerce of the
    floor to modulate the pixel depth. Whereas this was now not describe-realistic,
    the full stop was fairly certified at a strong lower computational payment.
    And with the tri-linearly interpolated voxels, the top consequence was actually
    fairly spectacular.


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    Shading for Ray Tracing (Share of Cervical Backbone)

    The VQ {hardware} consisted
    of six spacious custom-made PCBs in a DEC Hex-width backplane.
    The Object Resampling Memory (OM3) has no equal in VS2 (which
    mature MicroVAX reminiscence) and is the
    key to the effectivity of the general scheme. Proper by sample
    the names Voxelscope II+ and Voxelscope III may presumably effectively presumably be mature interchangeably
    earlier than (and even after) all of them grew to change into VoxelQ..

    The final group (together with gadget!) is proven inside the following:

    The six boards of the voxel processor {hardware} of the VoxelQ consisted of:

    • Host Interface (HI4): The hyperlink to the Sparc host however moreover built-in
      the microcode engine (though the microcode itself was disbursed amongst
      totally different boards), and grasp timing controller. The HI was largely unchanged
      from the VS2, Proper right here is unhurried mannequin up to date for VoxelQ often known as HI4.
      Nonetheless there may presumably effectively presumably truthful possess been a fair later mannequin that added an 68030
      microprocessor for some motive (presumably as a result of Ed had been given one
      as a going away expose from Bell Labs). The board proven right here does now not
      possess that. I moreover rep a mannequin the save everybody in Engineering signed
      their names on the silkscreen or backside copper layers which may presumably effectively presumably possess been
      carried out after I used to be now not corpulent time.. And the block
      blueprint reveals an AM29116 whereas the later variations mature a 29117.

    • Coordinate Transform (CT3) Generates Four coordinates in 3D or 2-D
      rep 22 state of affairs utilizing Four Waferscale WS59032s, 32 bit variations of the AMD2901 bit
      gash ALU. For ray tracing, CT3 stepped by mounted stage coordinates
      for XYZ in object rep 22 state of affairs and Z’ in picture rep 22 state of affairs.

    • Object Memory (OM3): This consisted of the controller and
      on-board DRAM SIMM modules, often known as the ORM impartial of the advise
      board. Consists of FPGAs, quad multiplier/summer season season FIR filter chip,
      and DRAM SIMM modules providing a flow into of tri-linearly interpolated
      voxels primarily based totally on 3D coordinates from the CT board. Hooks had been in residing
      to arrange an ORM growth board utilizing ribbon cables on excessive of the OM3 PCB
      to enlarge reminiscence potential, however I enact now not rep if that risk was
      ever examined.

    • Recordsdata Transform (DT4): Extracts/converts
      interpolated voxel information primarily based totally on density or totally different parameters utilizing
      fairly so quite a lot of lookup tables amongst totally different useful objects. It moreover built-in
      the amount rendering transparency/merging {hardware}.

      After the preliminary mannequin of VQ was
      carried out and its successor (AcQVision) was cancelled (leer beneath),
      there was one improve so as to add the amount rendering together with transparency
      {hardware} to the Recordsdata Transform PCB, thus the title DT4 fairly than DT3. πŸ™‚

    • Voxel Buffer (VB3): Extreme flee random obtain entry to reminiscence (SRAM)
      accessible by the firmware the save the closing picture is constructed.

    • Physique Buffer (FB3): Extreme decision (for the time) present utilizing
      twin port VRAM together with lookup tables for every and every of the RGB channels. For
      VoxelQ, it was configured to be 1408 x 1024 pixels, 60 Hz modern scan
      (non-interlaced). Recordsdata from the VB may be “blitted” into arbitrary
      areas of the FB at excessive flee.

    The silkscreen pictures are built-in appropriate to obtain a really feel for the size of these
    by-hole PCBs – roughly 15.7×8.Four inches. These are aloof DEC
    bag-factor with gold fingers.

    By evaluating the capabilities of
    these boards with these of the VS2, it may probably most likely most likely presumably effectively presumably even be seen that there
    are many similarities. The HIs had been nearly equal. Nonetheless,
    I’ll now not vouch for your entire accuracy of the diagrams. Now not handiest has it been
    nearly 30 years given that VQ was designed, however my archives are
    now not exactly efficiently organized and our opinion of a doc management route of was to
    commerce the file title. πŸ™‚ And having been copied and backed up a pair of
    circumstances, the looks/modified dates are extended lengthy gone
    so there may very well be not any telling which was the closing mannequin.
    Ensuing from this fact, while you occur to appear logical errors after establishing
    your possess VQ, sorry. Implement all of it inside a big FPGA in order that they might presumably effectively presumably even be
    with out points corrected. πŸ˜‰

    The OM3 PCB with on-board SIMM DRAM modules constituted the ORM. The
    widespread sense was designed by Len Miller built-in FPGAs programmed by Matt Donham
    to efficiently reconfigure the on the whole linear rows inside DRAM chips
    (which may very well be loaded of their entirety on any obtain entry to of a petite inside the row)
    into cubes or rectangular prisms in object rep 22 state of affairs.
    In that method, successive reads alongside a ray in an arbitrary route
    would leer no obtain entry to latency as extended as a result of the crucial voxels
    had been inside that 3D rep 22 state of affairs of the DRAM row, thus attaining a throughput
    shut to the corpulent pipeline clock flee since beneath these circumstances,
    the obtain entry to time was efficiently beneath the pipeline clock interval.
    That contrivance bought right here to me inside the course of
    a plug. It is now doubtlessly not this sort of profound opinion, appropriate a subject
    of grouping the sort out bits otherwise, in allege that did now not require
    a dream. πŸ™‚ The reconfiguration allowed VQ to proceed to make make use of of low payment
    DRAM boards fairly than extremely pricey excessive flee SRAM chips
    on custom-made PCBs for the article
    reminiscence. Nonetheless, to grasp encourage of the reconfiguration, as efficiently as to
    squirting out the tri-linearly interpolated voxels on the pipeline clock value,
    the assassinate of the article reminiscence controller was the type of undertaking one
    presents to a model unique engineer rent with out telling
    them their persevered employment relied on succeeding at
    a activity that could not be carried out. πŸ™‚ It was a minor miracle that ORM actually
    labored targeted on all of the items the FPGAs needed to defend observe of together with
    the sort out offsets to obtain entry to the Eight adjoining voxels to make tri-linear
    interpolation, boundary circumstances to take dangle of when to freeze the pipeline
    when someone of the Eight required voxels bought right here from a unfamiliar DRAM row and
    a chunky obtain entry to wanted to be initiated, or a DRAM refresh cycle was required.
    There had been one or two very obscure boundary state of affairs bugs
    early on however a number of tweaks to the FPGA programming equipped the treatment.
    All of it bought right here collectively inside the finish and the article reminiscence subsystem
    was very legit.

    Most processing was carried out in a pipeline working on the equal
    whopping 10 MHz as a result of the Voxelscopes, which was the
    most sensible seemingly clock value we figured may be maintained reliably throughout
    a pair of spacious boards. There was some dialogue on going to 20 MHz
    for the full scheme however that may presumably effectively presumably possess required crucial redesign
    of the general boards with a excessive menace issue. (Nonetheless, the ORM did flee
    internally at 20 MHz.) With some 40 separate computations had been managed by
    192 bit broad microcode, the equal processing flee was
    over 2 GigaOps/second since most of the computation objects actually
    carried out a pair of operations in a single clock cycle. These built-in the
    coordinate calculations utilizing Wafer Scale 59032s – 32 bit variations
    of the ever-expose AMD2901 bit-gash ALU and an FIR filter chip with
    Four multiplies and three provides in a single clock cycle. And
    since every and every of these Ops was optimized
    for 3D rendering, its unbelievable effectivity was doubtlessly on the least
    an expose of magnitude larger than it may probably most likely most likely presumably effectively presumably be utilizing
    an i86-form PC with a 2 GHz CPU clock.

    A Photo voltaic Sparc II single board laptop managed the file scheme,
    interfaced to the voxel processor {hardware}, and ran the
    GUI. Sparc workstations had been moreover
    mature for the gadget sample. Nonetheless whereas firmware was developed
    on the Sparcs moreover, the instruments mature had been alongside the traces
    of stone knives and endure skins. πŸ™‚ There was
    a microcode assembler cobbled collectively by Ed, a software yell dump utility,
    and now not highly effective else earlier what seemed on the VoxelQ present
    (however that in itself is a actually highly effective debugging instrument).
    Even with the assembler, microcode instructions seemed further worship
    transmission line noise than one thing individuals may presumably effectively presumably understand.
    Modify of the {hardware} was written in C++ or variants
    on the Photo voltaic. The VoxelQ GUI was custom-made developed since inside the early 1990s,
    requirements had been non-existent and in spite of everything, utilizing excessive stage scheme calls
    would now not be ready to satisfy the VoxelQ effectivity requirements.

    The decision to transform to a ray tracing structure was made on Felony
    Friday of 1991, with the truthful of getting a software that may be demonstrated
    (if now not polished) by the top of November for RSNA. Whereas the {hardware}
    was useful efficiently ahead of time, I for one (as a {hardware}/microcode-form)
    critically underestimated
    the gadget effort that was required even to own a rudimentary
    scheme up and working for demos. So, whereas a push was made to obtain some
    type of gadget going as unhurried as a number of days earlier than RSNA, surely
    we doubtlessly handed over that crop-off date by on the least 6 months. The {hardware}
    crew (primarily me, Ed, Len, Matt) wished to grasp the working {hardware}
    with check out gadget appropriate to be ready to inform one thing, regardless of the reality that
    in a wait on room for chosen firm,
    however inside the finish had been happy to help off. Nonetheless, the VQ was
    actually frosty when launched at RSNA 1992.

    As famed, the {hardware} consisted of 6 custom-made PCBs.
    Ed designed the Host Interface (HI3) and Coordinate Transforms (CT3),
    Len did the Object Memory (OM3), I (Sam) did the Recordsdata Translation (DT3)
    and Voxel Buffer (VB3), and Matt did the Physique Buffer (FB) and FPGAs
    for OM3. As with VS2, parts of DT3
    had been the most convenient subsystems that the Patent actually lined. It has
    lookup tables and totally different {hardware} for selection, mapping, chopping,
    and dicing. All valid-time calculations had been in integer or mounted stage.
    Floating stage was handiest carried out on the host.
    I wrote nearly the entire microcode for VS2 and VQ,
    whereas fairly so quite a lot of totally different hires together with
    Eddie Wyatt (some other low quantity worker)
    wrote highly effective of the purposes gadget. I moreover did the general
    PCB structure for VoxelQ moreover utilizing the DOS mannequin of Tango PCB
    together with the Tango Autorouter.

    I did the mechanical assassinate for the interior sheet-metalwork of the tower
    enclosure – some other time utilizing Tango PCB – which proved fairly acceptable. These
    had been largely formulation worship mounting brackets and adapters. I do not
    rep any errors in dimensions or gap placement that could not
    be remedied with a BIG hammer. πŸ˜‰ No need for AutoCAD. That tower
    enclosure is the equal one mature by Picker for various instruments. It is higher
    than a PC tower and is available in actuality empty excluding for mounting rails.

    In addition to to the 6 crucial voxel processor PCBs put in in an
    Eight slot hex-wide DEC-model card cage
    (with card guides!), there was a stamp breakout PCB often known as
    VPIO with the keyboard and mouse connectors, amongst others, and a vitality
    distribution PCB often known as PWR providing 5 VDC and 12 VDC to
    the backplane, Sparc, harddrives (as quite a bit as 20 GB whole), and totally different
    peripherals together with an Eight mm tape power and/or R/W optical power
    mounted utilizing the tower rails. And there was the customary 9,600
    baud modem caught on the underside to whole the scheme, with its
    possess vitality adapter.

    For higher or worse, our Manufacturing division
    and its employees had been casualties of the
    Picker acquisition. Whereas VQs had been aloof solely designed
    by us in St. Davids, the PCB boards had been fabbed and stuffed
    by Picker sub-contractors, and VoxelQs had been assembled and
    examined in Cleveland.

    All educated, some 2,000 VoxelQ workstations (listing set from $125,000 to
    $150,000 every and every) had been dropped at prospects. A customary scheme consisted
    of the VQ tower, excessive decision CRT coloration video show, keyboard,
    optical mouse, and laptop desk. πŸ™‚ What variety of
    VoxelQs had been actually purchased outright is rarely actually clear – doubtlessly now not many. Some
    had been built-in as deal closers for top-end CT scanners. “Concurrently you stamp now,
    we’re going to encompass a excessive effectivity 3D workstation AND Choppomatic veggie slicer
    totally with out value”. πŸ˜‰ Others had been section of the AcQPlan applications.
    What variety of non-AcQPlan applications had been ever actually mature is moreover questionable.
    Partly this was as a result of scientific reimbursement establishing. A software would
    be justified handiest if it may probably most likely most likely presumably effectively presumably pay for itself by billable procedures.
    Even inside the 1990s, the actually utility of 3D visualization for
    scientific prognosis had but to be confirmed and the general discipline
    was aloof in its infancy, so there had been few trustworthy insurance coverage protection
    billing codes.

    We (the Four founders) by no means did exactly obtain filthy (and even modestly)
    wealthy from the sale of DDD or
    subsequent time with Picker however did not starve each. Anthony had
    actually left ahead of the Picker acquisition so he did not
    take part. We entered into worker agreements which
    built-in fairly so quite a lot of bonuses primarily based totally on totally unrealistic goals
    (“the Milestones”) which had been totally earlier our management.
    Our wicked salaries had been significantly life like for our positions.
    Or on the least they weren’t totally ridiculous. We nonetheless the
    bonuses with out attaining the milestones anyhow since we held all
    the expertise enjoying playing cards and it was crucial to guard us fairly tickled
    for awhile on the least. πŸ™‚ Nonetheless I lastly grew to change into tired of Picker. As a big
    firm, they weren’t that drawn to decreasing edge visualization
    expertise, having fulfilled the favourite requirements for AcQPlan.
    So improve for sample of a subsequent expertise scheme was hesitant at
    handiest. We did pursue a modular implementation for awhile primarily based totally on the
    Texas Gadgets MVP (Multi-media Video Processor, the TMS320C80),
    surely an early Four core GPU chip). And it even was given a status:
    AcQVision (with the crucial Picker “Q”). πŸ™‚ Two 11×13 hump 12 layer PCBs had been
    designed and prototyped: One had a single MVP with its native SRAM
    and DRAM, together with a VRAM-based totally excessive decision body buffer. The
    totally different had 2 MVPs with native reminiscence. Initially save, we wished to arrange Four MVPs on
    a single board however that appropriate did not match. Listed beneath are photographs of the boards for
    no matter they’re value, which is rarely actually highly effective now:



    Β 


    AcQVision Twin MVP PCB (left) and MVP/Physique Buffer PCB (lawful)

    There was one minor disaster with respect to the MVP/FB PCB structure: It was
    came upon handiest after populating the board when debugging had commenced that
    Four bits had been reversed inside the information route, so an adapter PCB had designed to be
    put in between the Bt463 and its socket. That should possess been a deal with
    to solder. πŸ™ πŸ™‚

    MVP chips payment $1,295 every and every in amount 25 after we purchased pondering AcQVision
    was viable. Now I cannot promote them for $15 on eBay. πŸ™‚
    I aloof possess most of the MVP chips available (unique/NOS, PG2 manufacturing mannequin,
    3.3V, PGA equipment). The die is about
    3/Four hump sq. and aloof makes a formidable expose-and-account for if the
    camouflage is eradicated, instructions may be equipped. Invent provide above $0!)
    The backplane “MX Bus” supported transfers at fairly so quite a lot of hundred
    MBytes/second. The MVP/FB board was operational and
    may presumably effectively presumably make some visually spectacular, if pointless, operations.
    I wrote my one and handiest MVP program to blit a picture to
    random locations on the quilt as hasty as seemingly.
    Even further so after someone urged we double the clock flee
    by swapping crystals. πŸ™‚ Nonetheless the Twin MVP board with Eight cores may presumably effectively presumably handiest
    discontinuance a theoretical effectivity of a bit of the VoxelQ, and no query
    it may probably most likely most likely presumably effectively presumably be highly effective a lot much less in be aware. (I do not know if that was ever
    examined.) So, many spacious pricey boards would
    be wished to drastically improve on the present VoxelQ. And whereas
    coding the MVPs in a excessive stage language with legitimate gadget instruments and
    JTAG in-circuit debugging
    should possess been easier than the Jurassic-technology microcode sample
    environment of the VoxelQ, in
    fact it wasn’t that highly effective of a encourage (excluding that I’d now not should
    be doing microcode anymore!! πŸ˜‰ And Ed had did an anlysis which confirmed
    {that a} Photo voltaic UltraSparc and never utilizing a elaborate {hardware} may presumably effectively presumably discontinuance a sustantial
    a part of VQ effectivity. Skills strikes on. πŸ˜‰

    A software primarily based totally on the multiprocessor structure inside the Patent
    designed with cutting-edge work {hardware} (ASICs and FPGAs) would possess
    been marvelous on the time, though on this stage in time, high-end commodity PC graphics
    (gaming) enjoying playing cards with zillions of GPU cores may be the mannequin to move. We proposed
    a {hardware} technique to Picker Administration providing an expose of magnitude
    or further effectivity enhancement over the VoxelQ with out success even
    though the payment would possess been fairly modest. My legit job title
    whereas with Picker was one thing worship “Technical Director, Visualization”
    however as a sensible subject, I had no potential to make crucial selections and
    nothing to advise.

    The boredom did possess its
    upside: It was inside the course of that point when Matt Donham launched me
    to USENET, the massive sequence of textual convey material-handiest dialogue groups
    on the Internet. I began replying to questions, largely related to
    electronics restore however some moreover in quite a few areas together with lasers.
    This in the end grew to 10s of 1000’s of postings.
    Filip (I’ll forged off a Vowel) Gieszczykiewicz contacted me asking
    if I might be drawn to organising On-line pages with that convey materials
    for the Sci.Electronics.Restore Internet plot, which he hosted (though
    it wasn’t repairfaq.org at the moment).
    So my boredom at Picker resulted inside the delivery of the
    restore FAQs and related convey materials.
    At one stage, my writing was so prolific that I used to be supposedly
    spherical #128 on the subject of the amount of discipline subject revealed on the
    Internet. I do not know if that was actually upright, nevertheless it little doubt’s seemingly as this was
    aloof fairly early with HTML 1.Zero and browsers worship Netscape being
    of their infancy. I formally left Picker spherical 1995 to enact my
    possess issue, though persevered to move there in some unspecified time sooner or later per week to
    socialize. When the lease at St. Davids was up in 1997, Picker moved the
    facility to some other place of commercial park in Valley Forge, PA, a petite of additional out however
    aloof inside the Phila rep 22 state of affairs, and by chance for everybody ,
    nowhere contrivance Cleveland. ;-).
    The lease was extra cheap as Valley Forge is a methods a lot much less ritzy than St. Davids.
    On the day of the switch, I visited to attend on out and moreover raid the dumpster
    for attention-grabbing junk, together with the DDD MicroVAx II boards (however now not the
    enclosure) and the button panel from 500 pound
    Matrix Imaging excessive decision CRT-based totally Digital camera, mature to “print”
    pictures (worship VS2 cover-photography) onto X-ray movie.
    There was totally different stuff I’d possess beloved nevertheless it little doubt was each too heavy or
    buried too deeply. I lastly purchased the DEC boards on eBay
    however aloof possess the button panel, missing a pair buttons.

    Whereas now not formally working for Picker,
    I aloof retained half an place of commercial shared with Dave O., and my PC from St. Davids,
    though I think about it was now not the quickest one there to any extent further.
    The Valley Forge facility was closed
    contrivance the top of the 12 months 2000 with considerably obliging presents for someone
    to switch to Picker in
    Cleveland. Precisely two (2) complete employees took them up on the provision.
    (And so they additionally weren’t each Dave or Ed.) I snagged the Gateway PC and mature it for
    fairly so quite a lot of years at dwelling. Nonetheless the lease ran for fairly awhile
    after that and Ed and I aloof had keys, so we’d talk about over with periodically for
    frail time’s sake to coast the semi-darkened corridors – and
    raid the place of commercial present room for stuff worship staples, Submit-Itsβ„’
    and Picker envelopes,
    which I am aloof utilizing to in the intervening time. πŸ˜‰ We left the hips though: For
    exams to resolve how embedded metallic objects would affect
    reconstructed picture high quality, one among the many Capabilities of us had obtained
    a human pelvis (hip bones) from a cadaver with diversified embedded screws
    and totally different {hardware}. (The tip consequence: Poorly.)
    There had been moreover runt bits of desicated flesh aloof
    related and all of the items excluding the steel was dismal brown, not just like the
    bleached white bones of a gift skeleton, so it was actually fairly atrocious…..

    At some stage I did liberate a runt i486 tower (32 MB!) PC with Dwelling home windows 98
    and added a WiFi card because it did not possess Ethernet or USB.
    That machine is aloof mature for PCB structure at dwelling. No subject
    having been mature even when the Valley Forge place of commercial closed,
    or now not it’s fairly quite a bit hasty for
    Tango – even the spacious advanced AcQVision boards may presumably effectively presumably even be edited. Nonetheless the
    autorouter may presumably effectively presumably now not flee efficiently. Fortuitously an frail
    mannequin of Filezilla (ftp) runs beneath Dwelling home windows 98, which appears to be to be the
    very most sensible method to switch information to and from Dwelling home windows 10, by repairfaq.org. πŸ™‚
    (The make use of of floppy disks would moreover work however…..)
    Tango and OrCad for DOS are now not worship minded with any longer customary mannequin
    of Dwelling home windows, though I now flee the frail OrCad utilizing “DOSBox 0.74”, a DOS
    emulator for Dwelling home windows that aloof works with Dwelling home windows 10. Sadly,
    Tango requires a parallel port “dongle” (key) and the emulation is rarely actually that
    whole. DOSBox boards talk about patches, modified variations, and totally different hacks,
    nevertheless it little doubt’s now not clear any would even work with a specific dongle, and decoding
    the instructions to review out something is above my pay grade. πŸ˜‰ There
    had been moreover many spools of hookup and establishing wire, heaps of digital
    formulation, {hardware}, and totally different formulation and presents left over from VS2
    manufacturing, as efficiently as dreary or mature SCSI and IDE
    harddrives, and many others. All stuff that
    would possess in the end moreover ended up being scrapped. I ignored to
    take dangle of a big accumulate of 0.1 Β΅F bypass capacitors. That was a mistake.

    The wire and formulation possess been mature in limitless initiatives. Principally essentially the most
    highly effective rare-earth magnets eradicated from 5-1/Four hump CDC and Seagate
    harddrives are actually caught collectively so tightly that they bag
    a monolithic clump and will presumably effectively presumably truthful handiest be pried apart with a non-ferrous
    crowbar, presumably having created a singularity at their heart. πŸ™‚ Allowing a
    strip of aluminum or copper to hump vertically by the intact yoke from
    one amongst these harddrives (Four magnets with going by poles) is an very good method
    to inform the outcomes of eddy currents. And when most of the early
    harddrives had been disassembled, it was came upon that paint had flaked off the
    magnets, most likely ensuing in failure due to a head smash. The magnets
    in later ones had been metal-plated.



  • Encourage to Steady-Time 3D Visualization Table of Contents.

    Closing Feedback

    In 2001, Picker was obtained by Philips Medical. Quite a lot of the
    aged DDD of us are actually employed by companies in diversified
    areas of scientific imaging and related fields. Excluding for Len who after
    leaving Picker (efficiently earlier than then) returned to the job
    he actually beloved – composing observe for
    documentaries, leisure, and promoting, for which he is
    received on the least one Emmy. There may very well be an overlap
    in thoughts areas between designing convoluted digital {hardware}
    and musical composition. πŸ™‚
    Presumably the ORM assassinate journey burnt out a upright pile of
    his totally different neurons leaving petite selection….

    These of us who aloof dwell inside the Philadelphia rep 22 state of affairs attempt to event for
    an annual DDD reunion lunch at a restaurant inside the King of Prussia Mall
    (which is contrivance Valley Forge), on the whole between Christmas and Up to date Years. Whereas
    some possess totally different commitments or make excuses, we aloof on the whole obtain a comely
    turnout. In utilizing there we go by the aged Picker Valley Forge
    place of commercial noting whether or not the colour of the facade has modified throughout some other time…..

    Sadly as of 2019, a Internet search returns nearly
    nothing for “VoxelQ”. And any hits seem to inform “scheme no
    longer available” or appropriate “404 error” or refers to information on diversified
    Picker CT scanners which should possess had VoxelQ of their brochures.
    Nonetheless a locate for “Voxelscope II”
    does return fairly so quite a lot of study papers that reference it. So maybe
    a few of these VS2s did actually obtain mature productively. πŸ™‚
    And the YouTube VPP GRASP Lab demo does obtain a hit. πŸ˜‰
    One can moreover locate for “UPenn GRASP Lab Gallery” to locate a describe of
    a few of us after we had been highly effective youthful. Or take dangle of this hyperlink:
    UPenn GRASP Lab Folks (1984). A runt half
    of the ENIAC and 1/2 of a CRT present from some other vintage laptop are inside the
    background.

    I am grateful for the possibility to own participated inside the formative
    years of advise rendered 3D visualization expertise together with the
    UPenn, DDD, and Picker experiences, and fetch that our
    contributions did switch the sphere alongside. It’s the type of issue that
    may presumably effectively presumably truthful handiest come alongside as soon as in a lifetime. Nonetheless one startup
    was ample for me, on the least in the intervening time. So what I enact now
    it totally unrelated. Nonetheless, I by no means exclaim by no means, so
    if someone bought right here together with a bucket of
    cash to compose the ultimate excessive effectivity interactive upright
    valid-time advise rendered 3D expertise (is that ample superlatives?),
    I might be titillating to grime off these
    dormant neurons. And I wager Ed may be on board moreover. πŸ˜‰



  • Encourage to Steady-Time 3D Visualization Table of Contents.

    References

    Concurrently you’re related with a faculty or college, or now not it’s on the whole simple to
    attain obtain entry to to these publications. Nonetheless regrettably, most or all are aloof
    on the wait on of pay-partitions although they’re on the least 30 years frail.
    I handiest aloof possess a solely a number of (largely in manuscript bag)
    and they’re all exhausting copies. So please enact now not question as I do not
    possess obtain entry to to these in digital bag each.

    • S. M. Goldwasser, R. A. Reynolds, D. A. Talton, and E. S. Walsh, “Extreme
      effectivity graphics processors for scientific imaging purposes,
      Parallel Processing for Pc Imaginative and prescient and Stage to”, P. M. Dew,
      R. A. Earnshaw and T. R. Heywood, editors. Addison-Wesley Publishing
      Agency, Wokingham, England, 1989, 461-470
    • S. M. Goldwasser, R. A. Reynolds, D. A. Talton, and E. S. Walsh.
      “Methods For The Rapid Stage to and Manipulation of 3D Biomedical Recordsdata”,
      Computerized Medical Imaging And Graphics, 12 (1), 1-24, 1988.
    • S. M. Goldwasser and E.S. Walsh. “Extreme Lag Quantity Rendering of
      3D Biomedical Recordsdata”, proceedings of the eigth
      Annual Conference in Frontiers of Engineering
      and Computing in Correctly being Care, Dallas, Texas, September, 1986.
    • S. M. Goldwasser and R.A. Reynolds, “Regular-Time Stage to and
      Manipulation of 3D Medical
      Objects: The VOXEL Processor Construction”, Pc
      Imaginative and prescient, Graphics, and Picture Processing).
    • S. M. Goldwasser, R. A. Reynolds, D. Talton, and E. Walsh,
      “Regular-Time Interactive Merchandise and suppliers Related to a 3D Medical Workstation”,
      proceedings of SPIE Medicine XIV/PACS IV, Newport Seaside, CA, February, 1986.
    • S. M. Goldwasser, R. A. Reynolds, D. Talton, and E. Walsh,
      “Interactive 3D Workstations for Biomedical Capabilities”, invited paper,
      proceedings of NCGA Pc Graphics ’86, Anaheim, CA, April, 1986.
    • S. M. Goldwasser, “Rapid Methods for the Stage to and Manipulation of
      3D Biomedical Recordsdata”, invited tutorial, proceedings of Pc
      Graphics ’86, Anaheim, CA, April, 1986.
    • S. M. Goldwasser, R. A. Reynolds, D. Talton, and E. Walsh, “Regular-Time
      Stage to and Manipulation of 3D CT, PET, and NMR Recordsdata”,
      launched on the International Workshop
      on Physics and Engineering in Computerized Multidimensional Imaging and
      Processing, April 2-4, 1986, at UC Irvine.
    • S. M. Goldwasser, R.A. Reynolds,
      T. Bapty, D. Baraff, J. Summers, D. Talton, and E. Walsh,
      “A 3D Physician’s Workstation with Regular-Time Effectivity”,
      IEEE Pc Graphics and Capabilities), December, 1985.
    • S. M. Goldwasser, R.A. Reynolds, L. Ashery, E. Walsh, and
      A. Wolff, “The Voxel Processor for Stage to of 3D Medical Objects”,
      proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference in Frontiers of Engineering
      and Computing in Correctly being Care, Chicago, Illinois, September 27-30, 1985.
    • E. Christiansen, R.A. Reynolds, S. M. Goldwasser, D. Roberts,
      B. Holtshouser, and J. Thompson, “3-Dimensional TMJ Imaging: A Extreme Lag
      Processing Program”, launched on the fifth Annual TMJ Radiology Seminar,
      Up to date Orleans, October 12-14, 1985.
    • S. M. Goldwasser, “The VOXEL Processor Construction for Regular-Time
      Stage to and Manipulation of 3D Medical Objects”, invited paper, proceedings
      of NCGA Pc Graphics ’85, Dallas, Texas, April 14-18, 1985.
    • S. M. Goldwasser and R.A. Reynolds, “Construction for the Stage to
      and Manipulation of Three-Dimensional Objects,” proceedings of
      the 1983 International Conference on Parallel Processing, Bellaire,
      Michigan, August 23-26, 1983.

    — finish V1.16 —

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